"Our revolution is neither capitalist nor communist. Capitalism sacrifices the human being, communism with its totalitarian concepts sacrifices human right. We agree with neither one nor the other." Fidel Castro 1959
Socialism is defined as a philosophical, political, and economic theory that land, transport, the chief industries, natural resources, should be owned and managed by the state or by public bodies, and wealth equally distributed. In a utopian socialist society, there is no unemployment, no poverty, no difference in wealth, status and power. Everyone is equal, and the country runs efficiently under a theoretical socialist society. In practice, however, it frequently leads to political control, censorship, limited rights and freedom, and the repression of religion.
In a capitalistic society, the rich often get richer and the poor get poorer. It is much easier for the rich to accumulate wealth than the poor do. Socialists believe that the inequalities that exist in society are unjust and that the minority of the population should not own the majority of the wealth. Nevertheless, socialists differ on ways by which this change should be achieved. Some believe that the change should be rapid and brought about through revolution or violence if necessary, others believe that the change should be gradual, achieved through the parliament. Workers who felt insecure formed trade societies (the forerunners of trade unions). This allowed the proletariat to gain some rights that could not be achieved individually.
In its early days, socialism was a revolutionary movement of which the object was the liberation of the proletariats and the establishment of freedom and justice. The passage from capitalism to the new administration was to be sudden and violent. Economic self-interest is by no means the only important political motive. Politicians are likely to decide according to their view of the public interest; but their view will have a bias that can lead them to a wrong direction. Officials and legislators are usually isolated from those whom they govern; therefore, they are no acquainted with the conditions of life to which their decision will be applied.
In a capitalist society, the proletariat invests its labour so that the bourgeoisie or employers can make all the profits without investing any labour themselves. The disconnection of a worker from the end product of his labour leads Karl Marx to his theory of alienation. Workers are alienated from the product they manufacture, having no control over what becomes of it. Finally workers are alienated from other human beings, with competition replacing co-operation.
Marxs theory describes capitalism as the first stage followed by socialism and finally communism. Marx believed that socialism is an unrealised potential in capitalism and once most workers recognised their interests and became "class conscious", the overthrow of capitalism would proceed as quickly as capitalist opposition allowed. The socialist society that would emerge out of the revolution would have all the productive potential of capitalism. People would be aided on the basis of social needs. The final goal, communism, toward which socialist society would constantly strive, is the abolition of alienation. A class-less society would be advantageous for the vast majority of the population.
Socialism is a necessary tool to help fulfil the basic needs of society. Education is already largely socialised in Canada because most students attend either a public school or a government funded Catholic school. It is part of our civil responsibility to provide a decent education to the youth of the nation. It is our duty as citizens to educate the children of this country. Private school education is a luxury item. A properly cared for public school system should fill the needs of education as a necessity.
Luxury healthcare includes cosmetic surgeries and expensive treatments. Necessary healthcare constitutes emergency care, and treatment of other ailments, both mental and physical, which left untreated would lead to a significant deterioration in the patients quality of life, and conversely, that if treated would lead to a significant improvement in the patients quality of life. In Canada, necessary healthcare is already socialised because the federal government provides healthcare for all Canadians and even refugees. Everyone in the world should be able to receive the proper medical aid and the only institution most capable of providing it is the government.
Socialism eliminates hunger and lack of housing because wealth is equally distributed amongst the people. In a socialist society, people receive an immense welfare system and not have to worry about poverty. Also, racism and sexism will be eradicated because equality and freedom are vital parts of the struggle for socialism. The people through the state will control all branches of society.
Why Socialism? by Albert Einstein (A scientific approach to Socialism)